Roads in poor conditions can increase the cost of trucking by up to 1 560%.This is according to the CSIR’s Fifth State of Logistics survey, sponsored by Imperial Logistics.Logistics costs in South Africa have already reached R317 billion, or 15,9% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2007, which is an 1% increase compared with the 14,9% recorded in 2006, and the 15,2% in 2005.”If you look at 2007, things are getting out of hand. In the US it is just over 10% [of GDP], in India 12%, and in Australia 11%, 12%,” says Ittmann.He notes that worsening road conditions increase logistics costs in several ways.For example, driving on an uneven road surface affects the speed at which the vehicle can travel safely, which affects delivery times, increases fuel consumption, and therefore, grows the vehicle’s carbon emission footprint.Bad roads can also cause damage to the vehicle and its cargo.The CSIR conducted a limited case study at a transportation company in South Africa to investigate the effect bad road surfaces would have on vehicle damage and costs.The evidence was obtained from a database of vehicle operating costs for a fleet of 577 trucks, transporting cargo over a range of different road conditions.The trucks in the database were similar in terms of type, drivers and cargo transported.The information in the database was accumulated over a nine month period, between January and September 2008.A subjective classification of the road conditions was awarded to each truck route in the database.The classification varied between one and five, where one was an “excellent road condition” and five “very bad”.However, no road conditions were classified as either excellent or very bad, with only values between these two extremes used during the analysis.The study indicated that trucks travelling on the roads with the worse road conditions experienced an increase in cost of between 684% and 1 560%. The jump to the latter number was mostly due to the failure of suspension systems and trailer components..
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Lauren and Laurena it was destiny! The couple began their life together on the Anderson farm ten miles east of Saltcoats. They were blessed with three children. In 1959 Laurena went back to nursing at Saltcoats Memorial Hospital. After all the controversy beginning with the attacks of Harvard biologists Gould and Lewontin on their colleague Wilson’s book Sociobiology: The new synthesis (1975), could it be that sociobiology has finally triumphed? John Alcock’s book argues that it has. Moreover, Alcock’s thesis is that Wilson simply integrated what a large number of scientists had been doing over a long period as part of the new synthesis and gave it a name. In Alcock’s view, the motivation of the intellectual assault on sociobiology was ideological rather than scientific.